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This method is too long and requires too much lime to be used in a face-to-face game, but you might try it in PBM for choosing among alterna- tive strategies at some point. Nofi, long- time admirer land tung-suffercr uj A valon Hilt Games. Mr, Nnfi has lent his writing and design- ing Intents to Simulations Publications themselves worid-reknown as foremost in their field. New York City A full year subscription costs SI 0. This article and lite game is to be considered '"classics" by the carly-warfure game buff.

The defeat of the Legions had not been inevitable, but the ineptness of the Imperial generalship, linked with the reduced quality of the Legionary soldier had manager to Outweigh the normal tactical inefficiency of the Gothic tribesmen and defeat had been the result. Thus began what has been termed the "cavalry cycle" in the history of warfare. Henceforth, and for well nigh a thousand years, the heavily armored man-at-arms was to be considered the ultimate weapon, at least in the West.

This reputation was actually one as much gained by default as by hard fighting. So well ingrained did this axiom become that but rarely was there ever any effort to challenge the mailed ranks with infantry, and on those rare occassions when such an effort was made it usually ended in disaster.

Of course the condition of infantry was not overly inspiring. In all of Europe the only regular infantry was in the Byzantine Empire and on the Western fringe, in Britain. The first almost always operated with cavalry in coordinated operations— though it could, and did, stand alone when called upon— and in Britain cavalry was rare, until , when the Anglo-Saxon FYRD went down before the disciplined and coordinated attack of Norman men-at-arms and bowmen. Typically a Medieval battle was primarily a matter of horsemen, indeed almost exclusively.

Should some friendly foot be in the way, no matter, [ride the scum down! Serves them right for getting in the way of their betters. That was it, essentially, for over half a millenium and more. The full-time, professional man-at-arms invariably had it all over the hastily mustered, ill-armed, ill-clad, ill-fed, and ill peasant militia who tried with every fiber of their being to desert at the earliest opportunity. The Battle of Benevento, 26 February , is typical of the period. During the latter portion of the great struggle between Pope and Holy Roman Emperor for supremacy in Europe the Popes awarded the throne of the Two Sicilies to Charles of Anjou, Manfredo, King of Sicily, rightfully raised objections to this and war was inevitable.

A large Angevin army descended into Italy in early 1 while Manfredo gathered his levies, including some Saracenic foot and light horse, for the Kingdom of the Sicilies was not only the most prosperous but also the most enlightened in the West at that time. The two forces met in late February near the city of Benevento and the Angevins were in poor condition indeed. Manfredo had but to wait and the invading army would have had the choice of marching home or starving to death. A gallant knight conquers by the sword however, so he chose to fight.

The two forces were roughly the same si? Many of the Sicilian nobles were in sympathy with the Angevins. The chief action of the battle revolved around the horse, there was a brief infantry skirmish but it was so unimportant that many chroniclers leave it out entirely. Than the horse went at it, roughly three thousand or so on each side, and the infantry scattered to the winds. Each side had divided his horse into three "battles"— which may be called advance guard, main body, and rear guard- and they went at it full tilt.

The German horsemen of Manfredo's advanced and initially had the upper hand, for they wore the new style plate armor, until the Angevins noted that their armpits were unprotected and struck there. The Angevins Knight 5quire Medieval "Man-at-arms" The "man-at- arms" was actually a basic combat team of from three to five men.

The knight and squire were heavy cavalrymen and aimed more or less alike, excepl that the squire wore no crest or golden spurs. The page acted as body servant, aidman, and what have you.


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If crossbowmen were present they usually served with the infantry. On occassion the crossbowmen and page would be found mounted, usually on "nags". PAGE 7 THE GENERAL were also fortunate in that the Sicilian main body came up too slow, giving them time to crush the advanced guard, The main body, some thousand mercenary horse, broke under the full weight of the Angevins and fled the field leaving Manfredo alone with over a thousand doubtful Sicilian horse against Charles' entire army.

The battle being lost Manfredo charged straight in with what loyal men he had and died like a king rather than flee the field. That, in a nutshell, was it, The Sicilians lost perhaps two-thirds of their force, Charles of Anjou gave no quarter, and in a few short hours the greatest state in the West, the Sicily of the Mohenstaufen, had been destroyed. The knightly method of waging war seemed unbeatable. The Lord Himself must intervene to award the victory to the right.

And, of course; He alone was the true judge. Medieval tactics could, however, be frustrated for they contained the seeds of their own destruction. The typical Medieval man-at-arms was a mighty warrior but a lousey soldier. In the Eleventh Century he came up against men who were better soldiers and only somewhat inferior as warriors, the Saracens. For nearly three hundred years the Crusades brought Western Chrisendom into contact with the older civilizations of the East. This series of 1 military operations did more to change the West than anything else, yet the West was more or less beaten in virtually all of these wars.

The Battle of Nicopolis, 28 September , was typical of what could happen when a Medieval army encountered a Saracenic or Turkish force better organized and better disciplined— as they almost always were— than itself. The Ottoman Turks, erupting out of Anatolia in the early Fourteenth Century had overrun most of the Balkans by when a Crusade was preached against them. The battle was joined South of the Danube between a strong Turkish force and mixed Franco -Hungarian one of perhaps 30, all told.

What happened can be told in less than a dozen lines. The Turks dug in their bowmen and waited for the Crusaders, who obliged by attacking in an uncoordinated and indisciplined manner. The French, who constituted the Christian rearguard, refused to remain in reserve, went on ahead without orders and were crushed by a combination of the effective bowmen and the Turkish light and heavy horse. The Crusader's main body and advance guard came up too late to help and were in turn torn to pieces.

In four words the standard Muslim tactics were "skirmish them to death". Just don't give the ma chance to come to grips. The Crusaders never learned.

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Time and again they would be beaten by these same tactics and Spanish "Colunela" of Infantry Author- ised by King Fernando, who raised twenty initially. Each "Colunela" was headed by a "cabo de colunela" or Colonel. It was a killing job; at Ravenna in , eleven of 12 cabos fell leading their men. The men were usually armed along the fashion set in 1 More traumatic events were occuring in their rear, however, for infantry, so long despised, was beginning to reassert itself in Europe during the Crusading Epoch.

Frederick had taken his army into Italy again, for the sixth or seventh time, in an effort to finish off the Pope's lesistance, but he made the mistake of taking only cavalry, The Lombard League— a confederacy of many cities-lacked hordes of men-at-arms, what they had was a few loyal nobles, some wealthy burgers, and a handful of adventurers, but they did have hosts ot well drilled citizens' militia not unlike Athens or Thebes in the Fifth Century B. These people drilled regularly with pike and crossbow and undoubtedly constituted the only regular infantry in Western Europe at the time.

The forces met near Milano and the fight opened badly for the Italians as their cavalry was driven from the field in a meeting engagement, The infantry formed up to give battle, with pikes in the center and crossbows on the wings and waited. Frederick, seeing an easy win, ordered his horse forward, and was driven off time and again once barely getting away with his life. Meanwhile the Italian horse rallied and swept into the Imperial troops while they were still tangled in the pikes.

The result was a disastrous rout and for the first time in cent. Not that anyone seemed to notice. Over the years the Italian militia declined and at Corte-nuava, some sixty years later, they were routed soundly and everyone looked upon Legnano as a freak. But freaks have a habit of popping up again and again. Far across Europe another effective infantry was developing-or rather two more. The English had learned the use of the bow from the Welsh and the Scots had never been great for cavalry, for their country was unsuited to it, so they chose the pike. At Falkirk, on 22 July these two systems met for the first time.

England was still trying to subdue Scotland at this time and Edward I brought a strong army, perhaps as many as 16, horse and foot, into the Lowlands where, at Falkirk, Baliol and some 11, Scotch pikemen awaited him. The Scots formed up well, with crossbows in the intervals between the massive "schiltrons"of the pi kemen. The insignificant Scots mounted army was driven off by Edward's knights. Then the main fight began. As at Legnano the pikes managed to hold off the horsemen but then Edward brought his longbawmen into action. The massive "Schittrons" dense columns were easy targets, the phalanx soon falling to pieces under the flights of arrows and repeated charges of the men-at-arms, Edward had won the day by combining his two most numerous arms, the bowmen and the horse.

Of course, it was the latter arm which received most of the credit. Such a combination did not always work or was not always possible, however, as the remarkably similar Battles of Courtrai, 11 July , and Bannockburn. In both fights the defenders, the Flemings and the Scots, were almost exclusively pikemen opposing targe cavalry forces with some bowmen accompanying.

What happened?

Both the Flemings and the Scots, who numbered about 12, each, formed up in marshy ground with their flanks protected by broken ground, streams, and anti-cavalry pits. The French at Courtrai "large" force and English some 20, at Bannockburn charged right in, failing to utilize their not-inconsiderable missile troops, and the result was a slaughter. After holding for a while the pikes took advantage of a brief peuse in the fight to go over to the attack and literally cut the men-at-arms to pieces as they struggled through obstacles, At Courtrai no quarter was given-the Flemish replied "We don't speak French" to each plea-and some 4, knights are said to have fallen.

In both battles a sturdy foot had routed the cream of the horsemen but again the battle was termed anomalous. Indeed later, in other fights, both the Flemings and the Scotts were defeated, but the basic lesson was forgotten: Soon, however, the lesson would be learned, and [learned well.

Too poor to afford horses or armor the Swi ss adopted the pike— some eighteen feet of it— and the shorter, ax-bladed halbard. In they revolted against their leige lord, the Duke of Austria, who promptly dispatched a force of some 4, men, largely men-at-arms to crush them. At Morgarten, on 15 November , some Swiss, mostly pikemen and halbardiers, ambushed then in a narrow defile.

The Austrians were almost totally destroyed 3S. Essentially they were just a better organized, long serving feudal levy, These troops proved to be the origins of the French standing army. Subsequently the number of men rose. These formations were the ancestors of the later "Colunelas" and "Tercios" and they initiated the supremacy of the Spanish infantryman, which was to last for about yrrars, until Rocroi.

In the next Century or so the Austrian? The Swiss system was deadly and effective and it launched the Swiss on an outburst of mercenary ferocity seldom seen in history. Meanwhile, across the Channel the English were perfecting their use of the bow and learning to fight defensive actions rather than ride off full tilt at the foe.

A tenuous claim to the throne of France led them into the Hundred Years War with that country. On 26 August a small English army of some 10, men, mostly longbowmen, was brought to battle at Crecy by a large French force of perhaps 30,, Edward III had the sense to select an easily defended hill, with good flank protection. There he dismounted his men-at-arms and formed them into three bodies with the bowmen between.

The French obliged by charging right in, trampling down their Genoese Bowmen in the process. Within a few hours 1, French knights had fallen to some English dead. Of hand to hand fighting there had been little. Except for their crossbowmen, the French foot had not been engaged. Without knowing it Edward III was setting the pattern for the next century of fighting. Virtually every English victory was to result from following the same deployment, which was invariably successful provided the bowmen were around in quantity.

The French walked into— we might better say charged-each time, varying slightly, assuming that it was thedismounted men at arms who had given Edward the victory. Thus they themselves dismounted again and again with equally disastrous results, as at Agincourt in Thus throughout the Fourteenth Century and into the Fifteenth there existed two types of infantry able to soundly trounce the man-at-arms, the English longbowman and the Swiss pikeman. Neither system was totally effective and the Swiss system probably had mora flaws than the English, as the Battle of Arbedo, in , clearly demonstrated.

Carmagnola's initial cavalry charge resulted in over piked horses so he pulled back his men-at-arms and ran his crossbowmen into action. Meanwhile he dismounted the men at arms and sent them in on foot. The Swiss soon found themselves so hard pressed that they offered to surrender— a unique occurence.

Carmagnola replied that men who gave no quarter should expect none, but eventually the remnants of the Swiss, perhaps only a quarter or fewer, managed to escape. Within a few decades warfare in Italy had reverted to the High Middle Ages and became a thing of manoeuvre and stratagem rather than of battle and blood. This was essentially the result of the mercenary system linked with the prevalence of ransom. Arbedo gave the Swiss some food for thought and they improved their forces by reducing the number of halberds in favor of more pikes, and increasing the small proportion of crossbowmen.

During the Burgundian War, , their system totally vindicated itself at Granson, Morat, and Nancy. The mercenary business in Italy had far reaching effects; across the mountains and seas nations were being born in France and Spain and, glorying in their newfound Status they were looking for new lands to conquer. For over sixty years Italy was to become the major theater of war in the great struggle between the House of Hapsburg and that of Valois, as the French obstinately and stupidly strove tg establish their hegemony over Italy.

Nearly a score of times the French would send armies into Italy, almost invariably to meet defeat. In the process they solidified Spanish control over Italy, helped end the Renaissance, and wrought yreat changes in the art of war. The Fifteenth Century had seen artillery finally become a useful battlefield weapon, and right at its end the small firearm known as the arquebus had also been introduced. These were changes quickly taken up by the French and Spanish, particularly the latter, while the Italians and Swiss fell further and further behind. Spain also introduced two new-old weapons systems: These proved highly effective against the Swiss pikemen but passed rapidly from the scene with the improvement of firearms, which were also highly effective against the pikes, as proven on half a dozen fields.

Although firearms underwent a rapid development during this period no one was willing to put his full trust in them. They were still too slow firing to protect the arquebusiers from the dreaded "push of pike" or the thunderous impact of the lancers or even from the Spanish sword and shield men. A properly organized army needed proportions of all arms.

Thus the arquebusmen— or, in French armies, the crossbowmen -belabored the enemy when he was at a distance, while the pikes kept the enemy's pikes off your arquebussmen: A good general knew just when to trick out the right contingent. Later, when the swordsmen were eliminated, the matter became more simple. But running an army in the Sixteenth Century was not as easv as it had been for the previous thousand years. Essentially based on the Rorfian Legion, the formation was to have been highly Hexible. Thus the light infantry "battle" of the "battaglione" was to be composed of all the light infantry "centuriae" of the component battles.

The next year, as he retreated from Naples towards France an Italian coalition armv of some 12, laid a neat trap for his 9, men on the Taro River. The mercenary business had ruined the Italians however, and, though outgeneraled, the French managed to escape and claim a credible victory. Subsequent invasions led to the Battle of Barletta , where the Spanish sword and shield men cut up the Swiss badly; the Gangliano, , where the Spanish fire tactics proved to be more than just luck;Novara, , where the Swiss proved they could still bring off a victory; Merignano, where the Swiss were cut to pieces by effectiva French coordination of men-at-arms and artillery; Bicocca, , where a strong Spanish Imperial force entrenched behind a wall and ditch shot a huge Swiss phalanx to pieces; and Pavia, where the Spanish demonstrated that their system was good in the offense as well as the defense.

To be sore, the Spanish could lose a fight as well as Ravenna, ,andCeresole, , demonstrated. Four such were raised: Picardie, Champagne, Normandie, and Languedoc out of an authorised seven- Francois lost too much gold in his useless Italian adventure. These units proved some- what unsatisfactory but the first two lived long enough to become the Royal Regiments of those names.

Of the five officers per "band", two were assigned soley to, the arquebusmen-a Surprising development in view of France's reluctance to adopt this weapon. The halbardmen were usefull in a close fight, but not so useful as Spain's swordsmen. Created by Carlos I and not overthrown until Rocroi, , ended the supremacy of the Spanish foot soldier. Based deliberately on the and experiments, this formation initially comprised infantry of all arms in proportions of a third each. Later this changed, and by it was somewhat over half arquebusmen and all the rest had pikes.

Everyone, of course, carried a sword but the shields had been discarded. The supremacy of the Spanish soldier was probably due as much, if not more, to his ego as to his training, as an impressive list of victories attributable to the "furor hispanicus" can testify. Each unit had 12 priests and 3 surgeons, typically Spanish.

This Century, the Sixteenth, saw the full ref lowering of infantry. True the mounted arm remained important, in spite of predictions of its total demise by such notable thinkers as Machiavelli, but only as an important auxilary to the foot in an integrated order of battle. No longer could infantry march on the field unmolested, as the Swiss had been wont to do, or the cavalry ride down their own foot in their zeal to have at the foe, as the French did at Crecy, A proper battle necessitated an integrated outlook.

Not that battles were all that frequent however. From the Battle of Pavia, in 1 to the middle of the Thirty Years War, about , there were not half a dozen full scale battles in all of Western Europe, though of sieges there were a good many. Warfare, from being well neigh totally mobile had become almost fortress bound.

TIils "How to do it Kit" is written in the hope of inspiring further efforts in this new field of op plans for armies that don't goose-step. The first two setups are limited in use and are to be used only if the Allied player is reasonably certain as to the intentions of the enemy. The first plan shown below is for use la against a "strong left wing" offensive directed mostly or entirely across the Franco-German frontier: Unit codes shown helow are the same as used in the game.

N, Verdun - one 6j in l. MS24 thru MS27 - 2 h's ea. The third plan is a more versatile setup, allowing for most contingencies, and meant espe- cially for use if the enemy is suspected of using the common ploy of a co-ordinated, two-prong offensive N. MS29 - one ea. All 3 plans are not guaranteed to ensure victory they are simply mobilization plans designed to give the French maximum prepared- ness in a given situation. Victory or defeat will be determined by what the Allied player does with these troop-dispositions in the next 12 or 39 turns.

Some strategic hints for the Allies are included below to assist in stopping the Huns. Slrategy is determined by two factor?: Only possible if the German player is a yo-yo, 2 Tactical, Allies: Most likely if Germans are stopped inside central Belgium and are kept off French soil altogether.

Gair chance, Germans will break even or belter in points in neulrals viola- tion penalty paints vs. French can obtain margin by advancing in S. Seizure of neutrals, capture of most or all industrial squares in S. Excellent chance, as discussed later. Can best be achieved by fall of Belgium and all French objectives within 3 squares of border. Violation points must be kept low in order for Germans to achieve this or a Decisive- ly Decisive, Gel mans: All Belgium and most Ftench objectives must he taken, and widespread destruction of Allied units must occur.

The combined Allied armies lire inferior to the Germans in quality with few exceptions , num- ber, tactical initiative, and strategic dispositions. The Dutch and Belgian armies are small and can't be saved from a German all-out offensive. The remaining Allied forces are outnumbered and hampered by lower combat factors, limited replacements British , and numerical inferiority because Of the large numbers of German reserves. This means the Germans have a tactical and strategic ability that, between even players, a goal for the Allies is not decisive victory but halting PAGE 10 the Germans.

Consider the game in its relation to the rest of the war: With this in mind, we can conclude that a German marginal is actually not a victory at all, The French can therefore be satisfied with less than victory. The south regions, considering terrain, fortifica- tions, and lack of crucial objectives save for the industrial areas, will be secondary in nature to the region above the Somme. The south has terrain and fortifications enough to make things hard for the Gei mans withoul extensive defense, and the objectives are fewer than those in the north and west.

The French can afford to lose everything in France cast of the N. The southern objectives are within easy reach of the Germans and cannot be held unless a the Germans are weaker or b the French decide to stand-or-die. This brings me to the second point. A stand-fast or retreat-counterattack type de- fense in the lace of superior German forces will not work simply for Ihe fact that the Germans can, with their more numerous iroops, to afford increased losses better.

Standing fast will mean n loss ratio favoring Germany. So, "ils ne passeront pas" is out; it would be better to retreat slowly in unimportant areas and allow the Boche hopefully to so dissipate his assault forces Amphihious assaults should not be neglected even brigade-level raids will make German rear areas untenable and possibly cause him to detach troops from the main front. The French 'M' brigade should be kept available for such a venture. If the Germans are weak in the south, it is worth the while of the French to sieze Metz and gain some points.

Any further penetration in impractical and could detract from other sectors. Because of bad terrain iintl limited supplies, a German effort below Epin. Initially, it is best if the French leaves he bpinal-Belfort line to fend for itself. It sounds childish to repeat these basic point, I know, but I have found that most French players, as in real life, tend to stake everything on not-yielding-one-inch-of-La-Belle-France and nothing-less-than-total-victory.

Especially in ttirn games, the French Army will disintegrate before your very eyes unless you keep the casualties down while holding on to a reasonable amount of real estate, as mentioned earlier. The pailus and Tommies are needed for Allied survival in the game and in the war to come.

This article is not presented as foolproof- means-of-success. If what you have read is work- able and you dn not lose if you exercise enough skill: If you, as the French player, think that it isn't so hot, 1 invite you to publish something belter. There have already been too many German op plans for and every other AH game except maybe Guadalcanal or Midway; it's about time something new was started, Vive la France! A few words on si problem 11 deficiency if you will in iny favorite war game, Blitzkrieg.

Then- are few countries in the realistic world that could have two-thirds of their cities and land masses under foreign control without suffering con- sequences. However, according to existing ourna- ment rules. Red could control the entire map- board except Tor the peninsula in the northwest and Blue would continue to get its full manpower and material replacements subject to only one rule It is stated in the Battle Manual that the two opposing forces are generally similar.

To carry this further, one must assume lhaf each country has natural and material resources worth fighting for. On these hues, I offei the following sugges- tions for Great Blue. There are few countries in the world that maintain separated borders and those that retain these areas do so nl great expense and trouble Why"' Because the area has something of great value. However, I have seen many games ill which Origins by Lawrence R. Valencourt Impossible you say; on the contrary it's very easy.

First you decide on which of the live varia- tions yuu want to play Then take a deck of cards and let each denomination represent a country. In case of Inicliwis of PF being put into a eounlry always make it the next largest whole number. The only difference in the way you play the game, aside from the fuel that you play each country in turn, is in I his first part; the placement of the PF's. Perhaps the idea is best illustrated by the sample turn below: As the game continues you'll find that in most cases each country will end up with a representa- tive sample of each of the five belligerent PF's.

However unrealistic it might be for Germany to have 32 factors in France!! Still, I feel this version of solitary is a good way to practice and to develop a feel for the "tactics" of the game and variation played The game I just finished was one of an aggressive French Policy and it had all of the last turn Germans in France, 6 of spades! Leave the PF's placed in your home country there as they will be youi only means of eliminating undesirable "understandings" gained by your opponent.

PESCA TV SKY 236 - CRONACHE DI PESCA DALLA BARCA: TONNI DA LUPI DI MARE

The case of the U. Addition of a joker or jokers to the deck to require the player turning up said card to remove all his PF's from his home country and add them to his current turn's allocation, Instead of playing all five countries with the deck, play one side yourself. So your other opponents are all idiots we all assume that anyway, don't we??

This idea would also work if two persons were playing and really wanted unorthodox opponents as the other belligerents. Lawrence Valencourt 15h I Clarence St. Therefore, we should consider "the peninsula" to he rich in crude oil. To control this oil Red must place city D-7 under its zone oT control. Red need not capture the fields themselves, but rather the refinery city, pipeline concentration area, and shipping facilities. If and when Blue recaptures this city, after the oil has been stopped, the How of oil does not resume until the turn after recapture is made.

Armor and artillery are reduced to one-half of their move- ment factor. The Blue city of Q-lfc is an industrial complex which has the country's heavy equipment produc- ing capabilities. It manufactures and assembles tanks and artillery. No armor or artillery replacements can be brought into the game as long as Red continues lo control the city. Blue can continue to bring in replacements hut they must be other than armor or artillery.

If Blue recaptures Q it cannot bring in any armor or artillery replace- ments until the second Blue turn of having undisputed control of all city squares- Blue city C is an industrial complex which produces Blue aircraft. If Red places all of the squares of this city under its zone of control. Blue immediately loses the ability to replace any of its destroyed or damaged aircraft. In addition, the current air transport capacity is cut by one-half Blue can reopen Ihis city under he same rules as city Q Cities and L are considered to be training areas for the two types of special forces.

L is the training center for Blue rangers. This restriction begins when Red places both of the city-squares of whichever particular city under its zone of control. To re-open these training centers Blue must have undisputed con- trol of both city-squares for two Blue turns, A country's capital should be a most important factor in any war. Blue's capital is a general training area for all infantry troops. If the capital is lost no infantry replacements can be brought in.

Blue's nuclear capability is destroyed. This is effective after Red has placed the capital under its zone of control for two Red turns. In all cases Red must have all of the squares of a particular city under its zone of control, continuously, for the stipulated number of con- secutive turns. For Blue to re-open a previously captured facility he must have all of the squares of the particular city under his undisputed con- trol, continuously, for the number of consecutive turns required. Undisputed is defined as prevent- ing Red from having any square of a particular city under its zone of control at the end of its Ked combat portion of a turn.

Td use these rules for Big Red simply make the following match-ups! This is Ihe ability to utilize ninety-five to one hundred percent of all available forces in a campaign beyond the borders of one's own country. The addition of these rules places the emphasis on selective use of forces, the wargamer's ability to prolecl his own country while destroying sin enemy, and proves or dis- proves the wargamer's skill in organization of forces and the use of mobility.

These rules place the emphasis an the areas of the mapboard thai are and should be of most importance to the realistic wargamcr. No outside conquest can be made by a sane leader at the expense of his own country! Monroe, Louisiana The Bonaparte Squint When submitting questions to us for answers, please note the following: Include a stamped, selfaddressed envelope. The letters that include one are answered first.

Those that do not are answered last; as a result, these letters get back to you at least a week later. If your question refers to a specific situa- tion, please include a diagram of the situation. It takes a good deal of time to answer the letter otherwise, which will delay your reply, 3. We wish we could answer technical ques- tions and do research for you. We will he glad to answer questions on the play of ihe game, but we cannot, unfortunately, answer those on technical or historical points nor can we research data for those of you designing your awn games.

Keep orders and other mail separate from questions. Separating the items of your letters into different departments takes time and delays your reply. You've just checked your mailbox and all your PBM opponents have replied on the same day! Gulping down a hasty dinner, you sneer at the frowning TV set. Tonighl's Ihe nighl you'll settle old Frobish's hash for good! Your last move [joshed hini out of the Genappe river line and your left wing is closing in to block his retreat, lis only escape route is through the woods and that'll leave only a few lousy Anglo- Allied units between you and Brussells.

Tonight you're Napoleon Bonaparte, about to be master of the Continent. Once you've whipped Frobish, there are a couple more suckers you can dispose of more easily, but first let's finish off poor old Frobish. Dumping Ihe counters onto the board, you start sorting. Pink, green and blue - no problem. Now to sort out the cavalry, horse artillery, infantry and field artillery. OK, now let's set up his last move got In be careful with old Fiohisli, somelimes his cavalry moves S squares a turn. You're not Napoleon any moie. In brief, old buddy, you're a victim of the "Bonaparte Squint. There's the famous Rommel Red-Eye.

Insanity - Italian style. The focus of these diseases is. If you made the letters big enough to read, you'd have to put the board in Yankee Stadium and have six groundskeepers moving the pieces around. But that doesn't do much for poor old Ernie Klutz in Mudflal, Montana, does it? The answer is simple enough. Each counter has two sides. One side has all those letters, numbers, symbols and other garbage squeezed into a half-inch square.

Ah so, now you are beginning to get the picture. What we need is something that we can put on the other side of the counter in letters big enough to read without trifocals, but which will let poor old Ernie tell at a glance what unit he is holding in his sweaty little mitt. In brief, a Unit designator code system UDC. Of course these codes are classified and a bit more complex than is necessary for wargam- ing, but the idea is sound. Most of us are more familiar with the Navy's hull-number system, i.

The system which I have devised is even simpler, since we really don't need that line a distinction. First, we have a letter to designate the Army involved, i. Then a number to designate the individual unit, i.